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Before Penn left Philadelphia for the last time, he issued the Charter of 1701 establishing it as a city.Though poor at first, the city became an important trading center with tolerable living conditions by the 1750s.
In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina (present-day Wilmington, Delaware) and quickly spread out in the valley.
The American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under the Indian removal policy.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority.
In 1655, a Dutch military campaign led by New Netherland Director-General Peter Stuyvesant took control of the Swedish colony, ending its claim to independence.